What are nootropics? Nootropicsalso referred to as smart drugs, memory enhancers, neuro enhancers, cognitive enhancers, and intelligence enhancers, are drugs, supplements, nutraceuticals, and functional foods that purportedly improve mental functions such as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation, attention, and concentration. Nootropics are thought to work by altering the availability of the brain's supply of neurochemicals (neurotransmitters, enzymes, andhormones), by improving the brain's oxygen supply, or by stimulating nerve growth.
Racetams The racetams are structurally similar compounds, such as pramiracetam, oxiracetam, coluracetam, and aniracetam, which are often marketed as cognitive enhancers and sold over-the-counter. Racetams are often referred to as nootropics, but this property of the drug class is not well established. The racetams have a poorly understoodmechanisms of action; however, piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergicsystems.
Aniracetam Aniracetam is an ampakine nootropic of the racetam chemical class purported to be considerably more potent than piracetam. It is lipid-soluble and has possible cognition-enhancing effects. It has been tested in animals extensively, Alzheimer’s patients, and temporarily impaired healthy subjects. It has shown potential as an anxiolytic in three clinical animal models. It is sold in Europe as a prescription drug, but it is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States.
Piracetam Piracetam is a cognitive enhancer and memory enhancing supplement. Many people across the world use the nootropic, piracetam, to effectively retain knowledge andimprove memory. Piracetam is utilized by both younger and older healthy individuals. From recent and past clinical studies and research, Piracetam has been determined to support memory and aid individuals experiencing memory loss and difficulties in the ability to retain knowledge. Piracetam may enhance, elevate, and improve cognitive functions and abilities linked and associated to the central nervous system, memory development and memory processes.
Pramiracetam Pramiracetam is a lipid-soluble nootropic of the Racetam chemical family, and has a relatively similar chemical structure compared to its cousin Aniracetam. However, this nootropic is much stronger than Aniracetam. Pramiracetam has the capabilities of increasing the long term memory of individuals, allowing obtained information and knowledge to be recalled more easily. Considering that the high-affinity choline uptake (HACU) is increased implies an increase in the synthesis and release of Acetylcholine. The information shows how this smart drug increases both the Hippocampal Acetylcholine activity and the learning and memory encoding process.
it is widely believed to have first been created in Russia in the early 1990′s, but Soviet journals from 1983 held information regarding it , Pharmacological studies have shown that it stimulates certain neuronal receptors in the Central Nervous System (CNS) that are involved in memory and thought processes, such as the acetylcholine transmitters, GABA receptors, and NDMA receptors.
Sunifiram Sunifiram is a research ampakine that is becoming very popular amongst researchers. As an ampakine, it works to improve the ability of the AMPA glutamate receptors. Sunifiram works by stimulating the AMPA receptor currents therefore improving the glutamate signal. This is believed to be the main method of action however there are several other applications of this compound.
Unifiram Unifiram is the cousin of sunifiram. It is very similar in structure and the effects are supposedly similar. Unifiram is thought to be a slightly more potent compound than sunifiram. It is becoming very popular amongst nootropics researchers worldwide.
Coluracetam Coluracetam is another nootropic in racetam chemical class. The effects of coluracetam are supposedly similar to the cousin racetam, pramiracetam. Its’ main function is to improve High Affinity Choline Uptake (HACU). HACU has some great effects on the cholinergic applications on cognitive function. This is another exciting compound indeed.
IDRA-21 This is another ampakine nootropic and it belongs to the benzothiadiazine family. IDRA-21 is less researched than sunifiram and unifiram. Preliminary animal studies have shown positive results on reducing drug induced defects. The compound does not appear to show neurotoxicity when administered alone. IDRA-21 is a highly sought after compound for avid nootropic researchers.
PRL-8-53 PRL-8-53 is of great interest to nootropic researchers. It has had some human studies which showed positive responses in cognitive function. One study showed that the compound could help retrieve lost memories (hypermnesia). Research on PRL-8-53 in medical applications has come to a standstill however many independent nootropic researchers have got it on their crosshairs.
The method of action of PRL-8-53 is not fully understood. It does possess cholinergic properties. It is also thought that PRL-8-53 may potentiate dopamine functions while inhibiting serotonin. Many aspect of this compound are still a mystery.
Amfonelic acid Amfonelic acid is a sought after nootropic research chemical. It is dopamine reuptake inhibitor. This compound has a very long half-life and extreme power as a dopaminergic compound. Unlike many other DRI’s amfonelic acid does not appear to have any effects on the norepinephrine system. Research suggests that amfonelic acid may be highly addictive if used in subsequent high dosages.
Tianeptine Tianeptine is a research nootropic and one of the only in its class. It acts as a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Enhancer (SSRE). Tianeptine is the only known in the class and has the opposite effects of SSRI’s. Administration of an SSRI and tianeptine are known to cause cancelling effects. Regardless, tianeptine is thought to carry anxiolytic, anti-depressive and some analgesic properties as well as being a nootropic. Tianeptine may enhance dopamine release. It may also have effects on AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors.